The parties to the convention have met annually since 1995 at conferences of the parties (COP) to assess progress in the fight against climate change. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was concluded and legally binding commitments were made for industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The 2010 Cancun Agreements indicate that global warming should be limited to less than 2oC above pre-industrial levels. Gupta et al. (2007) evaluated the literature on climate policy. They found that no relevant evaluation of the UNFCCC or its protocol has stated that these agreements will solve the climate problem or be successful.  In these evaluations, it was considered that the UNFCCC or its protocol would not be changed. The Framework Convention and its protocol contain provisions for future policy measures to be taken. Since May 2013, 191 countries and a regional economic organization (EC) have ratified the agreement, representing more than 61.6% of schedule I emissions in 1990.  One of the 191 ratifying countries, Canada, has relinquished the protocol. The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, which has not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms.
Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 at the third meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP 3) in Kyoto (The Kyoto Protocol was put in place at the three-day conference on the parties (COP 3) held in Kyoto, Japan on 11 December 1997. The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the aim is to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic disruptions to the climate system.” Basically, you are reducing the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming. The agreement was hailed by British Prime Minister Tony Blair as a “great step forward.”  French President Nicolas Sarkozy would have preferred to set a binding figure for reducing emissions.  This appears to have been blocked by U.S. President George W. Bush until other major greenhouse gases, such as India and China, made similar commitments.  The United States signed the protocol on November 12, 1998, during the Clinton presidency. However, in order to become binding on the United States, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate, which had already adopted the non-binding Byrd Hagel resolution in 1997, in which it expressed the rejection of an international agreement that did not require developing countries to reduce their emissions and “would seriously harm the U.S. economy.” The resolution was adopted by 95-0.  Although the Clinton administration signed the treaty, it was never submitted to the Senate for ratification.